Answer each of the following questions in 250 words or less for questions worth one point and 500 words or less for questions worth two points. ALL RESPONSES MUST BE IN YOUR OWN WORDS.
1) According to Benjamin Constant, there is a striking difference between ancient and modern conceptions of liberty. Explain the major differences between ancient and modern conceptions of liberty and provide one (and only one) example of an activity or practice that would be accepted under one conception but not the other. (two points)
2) Generally speaking, how does pre-modern thought (ancient and/or medieval) differ from modern thought on the subject of hierarchy or inequality? In your response, provide one specific example to illustrate the pre-modern stance on hierarchy. (one point)
3) One of the defining features of modern political thought is individualism, including the idea that free and equal individuals are entitled to the protection of inalienable rights. Identify and explain one other major feature of modern political thought. (one point)
4) One of the major genres of political writing during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance was known as “mirrors for princes.” Briefly explain the major lesson(s) taught in this literature (also known as advice books for princes) and how Machiavelli’s Prince deviates from standard texts in that genre. (one point)